Religious Diversity, Theories of Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Shia and Sunni believers will celebrate on separate days by reading the prophet’s teachings. Here’s a look at some of the holidays Mercerians already have celebrated and still are looking forward to.

  • “Heaven” can be attained on earth by being in tune with God while still alive.
  • Troeltsch had even gone to the extent of predicting that since a religion takes root and grows in a particular cultural soil, to uproot it from there and plant it in a foreign soil would mean fatal to it.
  • There is significant variance, however, when it comes to the certainty and nature of people’s belief in God.
  • This view doesn’t consider the fact that there could also be non-religious cultures.

We have nothing to learn if our tradition already possesses the full truth, which is only partially available elsewhere. Critics of this position hold that it absolutizes finite expressions of the infinite, whether in an institution, a book, or a set of doctrines. They also point out that such views have led to intolerance, crusades, inquisitions, religious wars, and the rationalization of colonialism.

Religion vs Culture

Taking steps to engage in healthy behaviors, form social connections with others, and strengthen your coping skills are steps you can take to obtain those benefits that religion often provides. On the positive side, religion and spirituality can help promote positive beliefs, foster community support, and provide positive coping skills.

That is, the effects of different denominational cultures on national creativity were dissimilar. Religious variables were provided by the WVS1 (Inglehart et al., 2014), a major cross cultural survey on beliefs and values. Since 1981, WVS has been conducted for six waves, generating a dataset including about 100 countries. The relationship between economy and creativity/innovation is bidirectional (Rinne et al., 2013; Raghupathi and Raghupathi, 2017). However, in the initial phase of economic development in a country, economy can be developed prior to or even be independent with innovation. In developing countries, the patents of foreigners take up a considerable proportion , and technology mostly relies on “spillovers” of developed countries (Fagerberg et al., 2010).

Gods and Spirits

But Hick goes beyond this analogy in proposing that divine initiative has been revealed within many traditions, in the framework of the cultural assumptions of each. The variety of traditions exhibit multiple forms of revelation as well as differences in human perception. The great strength of linguistic analysis is its recognition of the multiple functions of religion as a way of life. Moreover, a relativistic approach clearly avoids the problems presented by claims of superiority and claims of identity.

LauraJamesArt.comThe study of world Christianity begins with the basic premise that Christianity is, and from its very inception has been, a cross cultural and diverse religion with no single dominant expression. Throughout history, all Christians have lived in specific cultural contexts, which they have, to varying degrees, embraced and rejected. Regardless of a positive or negative attitude toward their surrounding culture, all Christians must respond to their surrounding context. lebanese wife It is in Christians of many and various responses that Christianity gains its unique multi-cultural and polyvocal texture as a world religion. An employment tribunal is in the process of ruling on whether or not ethical veganism is a protected “philosophical belief” in the same way as a religion. Under the Equality Act of 2010, “philosophical beliefs” are “protected characteristics” – as a result, individuals cannot be lawfully discriminated against on the grounds of holding protected philosophical or religious beliefs. In their study on GCI, an indicator of nation-level creativity, of 139 countries across the world, was measured on a 3Ts model of creativity .

But until 1500 or so, it was not possible to print all the books in one volume. Earlier Jews and Christians understood that they had “scriptures” rather than one single book. The Daodejing is also a single book, but the Qur’ān has a unique status in Islam. While Islam has other important religious writings, there is nothing comparable to the Zhuangzi, for example. Buddhists hope to escape the endless cycle of death.Many religions that believe in reincarnation also place human beings in a special category.

The Effects of Different Denominations on National Creativity

Rational argument in theology is not a single sequence of ideas, like a chain that is as weak as its weakest link. If historical explanation were limited to accounts of the intentions of agents, it would exclude any history of nature. Some historians have in fact portrayed a strong contrast between history and science based on precisely this distinction. But the writings of historians include many pages with little or no reference to human intentions. They may portray social and economic forces of which the participants were unaware. Even in the lives of individuals, decisions may have been swayed by unconscious motives more than by rational ideas.

As such, culture involves agreement on the kind of things that are good for society and can make it flourish. ‘Culture clash’ occurs when different societies prioritise different understandings of what those ‘good’ things are. For example, indigenous (or ‘First Nations’) peoples readily, and with significant justification, contest the stories of settlement in countries like the United States, Australia, Canada and elsewhere. In such places, national holidays can be mourned as commemorating invasion and dispossession. New Zealand offers somewhat of a contrast, with the story of the nation including the drawing up of the Treaty of Waitangi signed in 1840 between the British colonisers and the indigenous Maori tribes.

This is especially common when faced with new or different spiritual beliefs and practices. Sometimes, a person may feel uncomfortable communicating with people from other religions because of assumptions about the other’s beliefs and opinions. One main communication barrier stemming from religion is individuals’ lack of knowledge or information about other religions and belief systems. Though spiritualityand religion can be considered to be related concepts, they are not entirely the same thing. While one may express spirituality through religion, spirituality is generally held to be a broader sense of connection to nature, the universe, and perhaps a higher power, but not necessarily one that is directly identified. Spirituality may consist of looser beliefs or practices than organized religion, though it may also involve meditation, yoga, dance, and so on.

Spiritual people often learn and develop their beliefs through their own experiences . This empowers people to discover their own truths without setting any limits as to the depth of one’s understanding. Alternatively, a religious individual learns or develops their beliefs based on the experiences they are told about their religious founders or through parables. While spirituality does not threaten punishment for a life lived in contrast to a set of rules, it often addresses karma. This is a principle of cause and effect where one’s actions or intentions have a direct impact on their future.

Applying the logic that we introduced at the start of this section, one answer is that elements of religion and culture contribute to both clash and dialogue, to both conflict and cooperation. Thus, the central tenet to Huntington’s controversial idea is that those elements of culture and religion that we have studied in this chapter contribute to fundamental differences across the globe.